Preheat the over to 425°.
Trim the edible artichoke stem of any woody parts, leaving as much of it as you can. Snap off the bottom one or two layers of tough outer leaves. Use kitchen shears to trim the thorny ends of the remaining leaves, if any. With a serrated or chef's knife, cut about 1 ½" from the crown of the artichoke, exposing the yellowish and rosy interior.
Cut the artichokes in half lengthwise. Using a spoon, dig out the fuzzy choke of each half, removing all fuzzy bits. Some of the purple-tipped center leaves will come out, too. Place the cut side down into a large baking dish (don't underestimate the size of dish you'll need-- the cut artichokes take up a lot of space!)
Pour the wine, water, and olive oil over the artichokes. Add the butter, cut or pinched into pieces, and smashed garlic. Generously sprinkle each half with kosher salt, red pepper flakes or Aleppo pepper, and black pepper. Cover tightly with foil and roast until the artichokes are fork-tender, about 45 minutes, depending on their size.
Remove the foil and continue to roast another 15 minutes or so until the liquid is mostly evaporated and the tops are a mahogany brown. Take care that the liquid doesn't entirely evaporate-- add a little water if needed.
To serve, scrape up the garlicky oil at the bottom of the baking dish to spoon on top of the artichokes.